GUEST POST: Persecuted Church in the Philippines!

Tonight, we will be having the privilege of sharing with the public a writing by a faithful Catholic within the Philippines. For those who are not aware, the Church in the Philippines is being persecuted. This year we have not only witnessed a bombing of a church by a suicide bomber, killing parishioners, but we have also witnessed the slaughtering of priests; Fr. Richmond Nilo being the third one in six months this year. Therefore, for safety reasons our guest asks to remain anonymous. His writing in which he has shared with us will be posted via our admins. We ask you to please keep our guest and the Church in his country in your prayers.

From the Byzantine Commemoration for the Living: “Save, O Lord, and have mercy on the old and the young; the poor and the destitute; the orphans and the widows; those in sickness and sorrowful, misfortune and tribulation; those held captive or in exile; and on those of Your servants who suffer persecution for Your sake and for the orthodox faith, especially (insert here: our brothers and sisters in the Philippines and throughout the world); and on all those who have asked for our prayers or are in need of our prayers, unworthy though we are. Visit, strengthen, comfort, and heal them, and, by Your Power, quickly grant them relief, freedom, and deliverance.”

Our guest of honor now speaks:

The beautiful country of the Philippines is about to commemorate the 500th year anniversary of the arrival of the Christian Religion this 2021. For centuries, the Catholic Religion has been the bulwark of the Philippine Society since 1521. But from time to time, the people in the Philippines and the Spanish colonizers began to neglect every plead of the Church.
During the time of the Spanish colonizers, the Spanish government here in the Philippines has neglected the plead of the Church to end the slavery of the Filipino people in the first Synod of Manila. Many heroes in this country were Freemasons seeking the destruction of the Catholic Church. But the only time in history, where in the Filipino people actually listened to what the Church has said was during the time of dictatorship in our country. By the shepherd’s voice, the Filipino people have successfully done a peaceful way of gaining freedom. But this was not the happy ending we awaited.
Many storms were actually going nearer to the spiritual ship we are sailing. Liturgical Abuses began to spread in our country and even until now we are still experiencing such horrible acts. We thought our struggles only ends with this Liturgical Abuses, but we were wrong. The Masonic influence in the Philippine Government has began to work slowly. Recently, the Philippine Government has allowed the amendment of the RH Law which promotes birth control. Though it didn’t include abortion, still it has gone against the teachings of the Church. The Church has stood against this decision but the people never listened.
In today’s society here in the country, the Catholic Church is now seen as a mere institution and not the way of belief. The current President of our country has been so enraged to the Church due to our stand in opposing Extra-judicial Killings to any person suspected of drug addiction. Many disgusting things that we have heard from the mouth of the President against the Catholic Religion. Blasphemies to the Pope, to the deceased priests, to our Catholic teachings and to God were coming out from his mouth. And what surprises us, was the series of priests being murdered in just a span of 6 months. And even our beloved Honorary Catholic Faith Defender Priest, Rev. Fr. Richmond Villaflor Nilo (who was scheduled to debate the heretical sect ‘Iglesia Ni Cristo’) was not spared from these incidents. Our Church in the Philippines has been persecuted both Externally and Internally, from the Outside and the Inside of the Church. We ask your prayers brethren so that our country the Philippines would not end up being the same with most western societies who have forgotten the Lord.

‘The Liturgical Year according to The Byzantine Tradition’ by Byzantine Seminary Press

“The liturgical year is a system of yearly church celebrations by which the faithful repeatedly relive the salutary mysteries of their salvation. In the liturgical year Our Lord Jesus Christ continues to live with us, to teach us, and to lead us to our heavenly destination.

The liturgical year, like a beautifully painted iconostasis (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, N. 14), again and again places before our eyes Christ’s sublime work of redemption in order to keep us intimately united in our Divine Redeemer. It inspires us and gradually forms a living Christ in us “until we become perfect man” (Eph. 4:13). It is indeed “a year of grace”, a year of God’s favor.


The Church follows the computation of time according to the civil calendar year. However, in the Byzantine rite, the liturgical year begins on September 1st, while the Western Churches begin their liturgical year on the first Sunday of Advent.

The Byzantine Church inaugurated the first of September as the beginning of the liturgical year in honor of the victory of Emperor Constantine the Great (d. 337 A.D.), over his adversary, Emperor Maxentinus, in 312 A.D. Prior to Constantine, Christianity was constantly exposed to persecution. But with Constantine’s victory, as attested by St. Ambrose (d. 397 A.D.), the Church began a new life.

The liturgical year in the Byzantine Church ends with the feast of the Beheading of St, John the Baptist (August 29), with whom the Old Testament also concludes. The New Testament, liturgically symbolized by the New Year, begins with the preaching of Our Lord, as indicated by the Evangelist; “After John’s arrest Jesus appeared in Galilee, proclaiming the good news: – The time has come and the Kingdom of God is at hand” (Mark 1:14-15). Hence the liturgical year is often referred to as “a year of salvation.”

The liturgical year is inaugurated by the message of the Prophet Isaiah, which Jesus applied to Himself: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, for He has anointed me. He has sent me to bring the good news, to announce a year of grace (favor) from the Lord” (Lk. 4:16-19). In this way the beginning of the liturgical year symbolizes the beginning of the New Testament, inaugurated by the preaching of the gospel (good news) in the Person of Jesus Christ, Anointed One of God.


From the earliest Apostolic times the Christians were convinced that they must celebrate the saving work of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by recalling the salutary mysteries of salvation on certain days of the year. The starting point was the weekly commemoration of Christ’s Resurrection on Sunday. Thus Sunday for Christians became – The Lord’s Day (Rev. 1:10), supplanting the Sabbath of the Old Testament. Every week on Sunday the Christians commemorated the Resurrection of Christ by the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, referred to by the Acts as “the breaking of bread” (Acts 20:7). The Teachings of the Twelve Apostles, compiled at the turn of the first century, admonished the faithful: “On the Lord’s Day, after you come together, break bread and offer the Eucharist” (14,1).

The early Church, commemorating the Resurrection of Christ every Sunday, did not neglect the yearly commemoration of the glorious event and, from the early days, celebrated the Feast of Easter with great solemnity. As a matter of fact Easter became the core of the liturgical year and was referred to as “The Feast of feasts and Solemnity of solemnities.”


Image result for Constantine battle icon

In the early centuries there arose a heated controversy as the date of the celebration of Easter. The question was finally resolved at the First Council of Nicea (325 A.D.) when it was determined that Easter had to be celebrated every year on the first Sunday, following the full moon after the spring of equinox. According to this rule, the earliest date upon which Easter can be celebrated is March 22, and at the latest, April 25. But it always must be on Sunday.

Since the date of Easter changes from year to year, the Sundays, the holy seasons and the festivals that depend on Easter form the so called – Cycle of the Movable Feasts. The Movable or Easter Cycle begins four weeks before Lent with the Sunday of the Publican and Pharisee, and serves as a liturgical preparation for that Holy Season.

The Great Lent, in preparation for Easter, starts on the Monday after Cheese Fare Sunday (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n.13). The sixth Sunday of Lent, called Palm Sunday in commemoration of Christ’s solemn entrance into Jerusalem (Jn. 12:12-19), introduces us into the Passion or the Holy Great Week, during which we relive the sufferings and the death of our Lord, endured for our salvation. Then, on Easter Sunday, we suddenly burst into the joyous celebration of Christ’s glorious Resurrection.

On the 40th day after Easter we celebrate the Feast of the Ascension, commemorating the Ascent of our Lord to Heaven. (Lk. 24:50-53). Ten days later, i.e. on the fiftieth fay after Easter, we celebrate the Feast of Pentecost in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit, when the Church was solemnly inaugurated. (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n.3).

Pentecost is followed by the series of 32 Sundays, indicated by successive numbers, the first of which is called All Saints Sunday. The Easter Cycle of the movable feasts ends with the 32nd Sunday after Pentecost, known as the Sunday of Zacchaeus (Lk 19:1-10).


The second cycle which influenced the formation of the liturgical year is – the Cycle of the Immovable Feasts, at the center of which we find the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord, celebrated since the turn of the fourth century, on the 25th of December (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n.5). These feasts are called – immovable because, unlike the feasts of the Easter Cycle, they fall on the same day of the month every year and their date never changes.

Eight days after Christmas, on January 1, we celebrate the Feast of the Circumcision and the naming of the Child Jesus, as indicated by Scripture (Lk. 2:21). On Febuary 2, forty days after Christ’s birth, we solemn commemorate the Presentation of Our Lord in the Temple (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, N. 12). The Feast of the Annunciation, known in the early days as the Conception of Our Lord, is observed nine months before Christ’s nativity, that is on the 25th of March.

One of the most ancient feasts of this cycle is celebrated on January 6, the Feast of the Epiphany, the manifestation of Christ’s Divinity at His baptism, commemorated by the solemn Blessing of the Water on that day (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n.9). Then on August 6th we celebrate the Feast of the Holy Transfiguration (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n.18). Finally, on the 14th of September we commemorate the finding of the instrument of our salvation by St. Helen (d. 333 A.D.), as we celebrate the Feast of the Exaltation of the Venerable Cross (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n. 8).

Thus, our Church, through the annual celebration of the Lord’s feasts, repeatedly unfolds to us the riches of Christ’s merits and salutary graces.


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In celebrating the mysteries of our salvation we cannot exclude the Holy Mother of God (Theotokos), since she played an important role in the economy of our salvation. And we are happy to know that precisely the Byzantine Rite is characterized by its high esteem and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Already at the beginning of the liturgical year, on September 8th, we celebrate the Feast of the Nativity of the Mother of God, sine Mary’s birth signaled “the beginning of our salvation” (cf. Sticheria of Litia). In connection with Mary’s birth, since the eighth century, we celebrate the Feast of the Conception of the Mother of God, recently referred to as the Immaculate Conception. (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n. 36).

At the beginning of the 10th century the Feast of the Patronage of the Mother of God was introduced which with time became a great inspiration to the Ruthenian people in their filial devotion to the Blessed Mother of God (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n. 1). Since the 8th century we also celebrate the Feast of the Presentation of the Mother of God in the Temple. (November 21st).

There are several minor feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, but the liturgical year ends with the oldest Marian feast, the Dormition, known in the Western Church as the Assumption. It is solemnly celebrated to the present time of the 15th of August (cf. Byzantine Leaflet Series, n. 11).


The Church Fathers also included the commemoration of many Martyrs and other Saints in the liturgical year. The II Vatican Council reminds us that the Martyrs and Saints, being “raised to holiness by abundant graces of God and already in possession of their eternal salvation, sing constant praises to God in heaven and offer prayers for us” (cf. Decree on the Liturgy, n. 104). By celebrating the passage of the Saints from the earth to heaven, the Church also proposes them to us as so many examples of genuine Christian living.

The veneration of the Saints has a similar purpose. This began in the first century, first the Veneration of the Martyrs and then of the Apostles. Soon other Saints were added. Between the fourth and fifth centuries the veneration of the Saints became a general practice, ceding the first place of St. John the Baptist (after the Blessed Mother and the Angels), in view of Christ’s testimony: “There is no one greater than John!” (Lk. 7:28). The Saints usually are commemorated on the anniversary of their death, since the departure of those “that died in the Lord” (Romans 14:8) was considered by the Christians as a day of birth to a new and happy life with God.

The liturgical year is indeed a year of grace and our sanctification, keeping us in close union with Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. The liturgical year helps us to become more and more Christ – like, it molds Christ within us. In a word, through the liturgical year Jesus Christ continues to live among us, He continues to teach us, He continues to lead us toward our eternal salvation.”

(Byzantine Leaflet Series, No. 35 – With Ecclesiastical Approbation, August 1986 , Byzantine Seminary Press, Pittsburgh PA 15214). 

Troparion For The New Year (September 1st):

O Maker of all creation, under whose control are the seasons and the years, being Our Lord, bless the blessings of the year with abundance and, through the intercession of the Theotokos, preserve our country and the people in peace, and save us. 

Vatican II On The Liturgy:

“Holy Mother Church believes that it is her duty to celebrate the saving work of her Divine Spouse by commemorating it devoutly on certain days throughout the course of the liturgical year.” (n. 102).

The Feastdays Of Obligation:

  1. The Nativity of Our Lord (Dec 25); 2. The Epiphany (Jan 6); 3. The Ascension of Our Lord; 4. The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul (June 29); and 5, The Dormition of the Blessed Theotokos (August 15). 

The Rich Man Who Walked Away

This parable is probably the most striking to me. I’ve heard this parable, along with many others, a lot throughout my Christian journey. I heard this as a Protestant, I heard this as a Roman Catholic, and I hear it now as a Ruthenian Rite Catholic. It is a parable I will hear at least once every year. But why does it strike me?

We all know the story from Matthew 19:

16 Just then a man came up to Jesus and asked, “Teacher, what good thing must I do to get eternal life?”

17 “Why do you ask me about what is good?” Jesus replied. “There is only One who is good. If you want to enter life, keep the commandments.”

18 “Which ones?” he inquired.

Jesus replied, “‘You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, 19 honor your father and mother,’[c] and ‘love your neighbor as yourself.’[d]

20 “All these I have kept,” the young man said. “What do I still lack?”

21 Jesus answered, “If you want to be perfect, go, sell your possessions and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me.”

22 When the young man heard this, he went away sad, because he had great wealth.

23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “Truly I tell you, it is hard for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of heaven. 24 Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.”

25 When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished and asked, “Who then can be saved?”

26 Jesus looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.”

The thing is that every single pastor I had ever met had focused on one thing. That the guy was too greedy to follow Jesus. He liked his possessions too much to even seek after eternal life. Every sermon or homily I ever listened to was a scoff-fest. We would all listen disapprovingly, and then the pastor or priest would lay into his greed. And I agreed with them. The man knew what he had to do and rejected it to keep his possessions. Most sermons never called on US to change but rather chastized “the rich” in our society who choose money over God.

Then, one Sunday, the priest of my parish read the gospel and began the homily. This homily stands out above all of his other homilies since he had the tendency of putting me to sleep. He was so boring and I could predict what he was going to say. “Gospel was about this and that and this relates to the eucharist because blah blah and in the eucharist we can…” But on this day, his rhetoric was somewhat different. I remember snapping out of a daydream (I was 16 at the time) and he said “here is a man who’s observance of the commandments could put all of us to shame.” And that statement struck me. We were so busy accusing him of greed that we ignored the part where he had never broken a commandment. His issue wasn’t greed. If he was greedy, he’d have been violating the commandment to not covet. In fact, he obeyed the law to “love his neighbor as himself.” This means that he was even GENEROUS with his possessions and gave some things away to help others.

He was more righteous than the Pharisees. Jesus didn’t chastise him for deception or for only following the letter. Jesus recognized in him a genuine heart that wanted to serve Him. But he was too attached to the world. He helped the poor, but he also enjoyed his money. He liked the licit pleasures of this world too much. He figured he could serve God while maintaining a comfortable standard of living. Even after the man walked away, Christ didn’t condemn him. Christ said that it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter heaven. After the disciples noted the impossibility of that statement, Christ said that with God, it is possible. Essentially, it is possible, but it will be very difficult. But Christ can save him.

The ironic thing is, that all of us scoffing at him are essentially in the same situation. Everyone reading this has access to an internet browser, probably lives indoors, and probably hasn’t genuinely faced starvation. Even more ironic is that everyone scoffing at the churches I went to all had cars and owned homes. Some had 2 cars. Some had fancy cars. Some had fancy homes. Then they come to church and hear the Gospel messages. And when they (myself included) heard this call to give up EVERYTHING, they make excuses to why it doesn’t apply to them. And guess what. They are NOT wrong. Nowhere does Christ say that owning property is a sin. No saint has ever said that rich people can’t get into heaven. There have been some really well-off people who have been canonized. In fact, many Popes who went on to become saints lived in a very luxurious Vatican. They spent their days sitting on a papal throne, being carried about the streets like a king.

The issue isn’t a question of sinfulness but rather of theosis. We can begin our transformation now or after our death. It’s going to happen sooner or later. The difference is that it is easier for us to do it while alive since we can use our bodies to help perfect our souls, but while dead, it is a lot harder to purify our souls without a body. That is why it is said that being present at a single liturgy in life will benefit one’s soul more than hundreds of liturgies offered for them after death. That is why it is hard.

But financial possessions aren’t the only thing that tethers us to this world and prevent our theosis. What about family or friends? What about our desire to be successful? What about our education and careers? Every person, unless they are a monk or nun who has literally given up everything and has no possessions, spending their days at a monastery praying and helping others, is that rich young man. We have to give up even our relationships with our family and friends if we want to be someone who follows Christ directly.

That is the purpose of that parable. Many of us are that rich man, unable to part with our possessions, while still upholding the commandments. And this parable is actually a message of hope. Even though we can’t part with everything to cut ourselves off from the world, God says that it will be hard, but not impossible for us to enter into the kingdom of heaven. The Church teaches that those who repent and try to seek after Christ will be saved. And for those of us who never get around to abandoning all of our possessions to enter into monastic life, maybe as we go through purgatory in the next life, we will realize how foolish we were for holding on to something that we were destined to lose anyway.


Technology in the Liturgy

If there is one thing that I cannot stand, it is the placement of projector screens in churches. This hasn’t really occurred in the East as much as it has in the West. But why is it an issue? Is it that we should be opposed to new technology? We have books, and some of us have pews, and those didn’t exactly exist when the Christ founded the Church, so that argument is out. (Plus, I would be hardpressed to find a Church that didn’t use a heater or A/C – or electric lighting). It isn’t technology that I dislike.

The issue is about what is in the front of the Church. In our Byzantine Catholic Churches, we have beautiful icon screens, which really convey the sacred nature of the place that we are in. Those images, along with the candles, really set a prayerful climate. It is a climate that is meant to put us into a different time period so that we can fully place ourselves into the liturgy. Church has always placed us in the past, even back in 33AD! The first liturgy, the Last Supper, celebrated by Christ Himself, occurred in concordance with a Passover Seder, which called its participants back to the Exodus. Every Liturgy looked to the past as well as forward to the Second Coming. That is why our Churches have maintained the same sacred architecture that it had since our victory over the Iconoclastic heresy.

In the West, after the Second Vatican Council, the architecture of their churches was changed to reflect their “meal theology.” Essentially, the Eucharist is a communal meal of “we and God” and so they changed the architecture of the Church to reflect this. Age old designs, such as the Church being shaped in the form of a cross, or the Church representing a ship on the way to heaven was thrown out to be replaced with a semi-circular concert hall to reflect the meal in the “here-and-now.” The Romans previously had too much of an emphasis on the Sacrifice of the Cross (to the detriment of the focus on the Resurrection – in my opinion. Others may say that you can never be too focused on the cross) but now the sacrifice is denied almost completely in this architecture. It becomes less about worshipping God and more about having a good time in God’s presence. You must acknowledge the Cross in the liturgy, but you must remember the resurrection as well.

With this change, there was a lot of empty space created. In one corner, tabernacles were stashed aside. Towards the front, there was nothing next to the sides of the crucifix. No icons, no paintings, not even statues. While in the past, Roman Churches would have side altars with statues, now there is nothing. With this, the Church also realized that they didn’t have much money left over after “renovations,” so things such as vestments and decent hymnals became something the local churches had no interest in investing in. And with technological advancements, they solved two of their problems. They could eliminate the blank space as well as the need to buy books by placing projector screens in the churches. While this may be a very utilitarian solution, imagine coming into a church to pray. Towards the front (which all the pews face), there is a very un-ornate altar table with a crucifix (if you’re lucky- if you’re unlucky you get one of those weird resurrection crucifixes). You might get some statues, but that’s about it. Then you see two blank projector screens. The tabernacle is off in the corner. If you are lucky, there are kneelers in front of the tabernacle. These new churches are not very prayer-friendly.

Thankfully, I do not anticipate this ever becoming an issue in our Eastern Catholic Churches. After all, where would they go? Icon screens cover up the majority of the front, if not all of it. They simply do not have a place to go in our worship – and that is a good thing.

We do have technology in our churches, and that is also a good thing. The air conditioning, the books (yes books are technology), the lights are all things that make it easier to focus on prayer. And that is what technology should do in the Church: focus us in our prayers to God.

What is the Purpose of Prayer?

A lot of people ask this question. However, the thing they forget to do is ask themselves this first: What is Prayer? After all, if we don’t know what something is, we can’t know it’s purpose. Prayer, in its simplest definition, is communication to a spiritual entity. We pray to angels, saints, and God. Here, we must draw a distinction. There is a difference between prayer and worship. All worship is prayer, but not all prayer is worship. Worship literally means to give worth. So we worship (in the literal sense) God, Mary, the angels and saints, and even anyone we respect and admire.  However, our understanding of worship is an action in which we give to recognize one as a Supreme being. So, using our colloquial understanding of the word, we would say that we worship God, glorify Mary, praise the angels and saints, and honor those around us who we respect and admire.

Prayer can be broken down even further into: Adoration, Contrition, Thanksgiving, and Supplications (abbreviated ACTS). This leads into the purpose. We adore God just for the sake of His goodness. We pray to express sorrow for sin and to beseech forgiveness. We give thanks to God for his great goodness. The last is supplications. A lot of people question this aspect. After all, there have been cases where areas were threatened with destruction, but since everyone prayed for deliverance, God delivered them. Then, there are cases where Christian areas were wiped out by natural disasters or by murderous psychopaths. Some people say that the more people praying for something, the more likely God will answer the prayer. Sometimes, that is the case, sometimes it isn’t. And we don’t always get what we want.

A lot of times, we treat God as a cosmic Santa Claus to give us whatever we want and whenever we want. We pray for people to not die, we pray for storms to be averted, we pray to win the lottery, we pray for other people to convert, etc. We forget that His plan is sometimes nonsensical to us.

So, sometimes our supplications are answered, sometimes their not. So why ask? We have an inherent need to be in total communion with God. Our created purpose is for worship after all. It is by telling God all of our cares, even when we know what we want won’t occur, that we fully trust in Him. Even Jesus prayed to God the Father and wasn’t given what He asked. “Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me, but not My will but Yours be done.”  See, here we see a perfect model of supplication. We pray for what we want and for deliverance from what may occur. But we accept God’s will regardless.

What is Consent?

Pretty much every Catholic is familiar with the concept of Mortal Sin. We all know that there are 3 conditions: it must be grave matter, you must have full knowledge, and you must give full consent. In my opinion, consent is the most important part, since consent is the only part of the sin you can actually do. The gravity of an action is objective and will always be the same when factoring in the object, purpose, and circumstances of the act. The knowledge is variable but is set at the time consent is given. Without consent, an act will not take place. It is possible to fully consent to evil without knowing that it is gravely evil. Then again, the grave evil this usually refers to is that of breaking a disciplinary law such as meat on Friday. It is a sin because of the disobedience, not because meat is bad. (So, I guess it really isn’t gravely evil since you can’t intentionally sin through disobedience if you didn’t know it was a rule, to begin with).

Now with consent to a sin, there are many different levels.

The highest level is full consent. This means you are allowing your body to perform the act and you are participating without resistance. This does not mean you aren’t facing temptation. For instance, there is a party going on at the same time as church, and you really want to go to it and you are seriously considering skipping mass/liturgy.

Then there is consent through habit. It is something our body has been used to doing, so the body has a stronger inclination to do. We feel bothered when we don’t do it. An example here is foul language. We are so used to using Jesus’s name in vulgar ways that it happens automatically. We don’t mean disrespect but we do it anyways.

Then there is consent through addiction. This is where the body feels like it NEEDS to do something. This is something that happens when you are actively trying to stop but can’t stop easily. There are people addicted to pornography, people addicted to eating, people addicted to smoking, etc. Yes, you are allowing yourself to perform the act and participating in it, but if you didn’t have that addiction, you could go periods without considering it. An example is the people who do drugs even when they know they will be caught and lose everything. Or someone who cannot function normally without a substance. Yes, there are people addicted to coffee, even if coffee isn’t immoral.

Then there is consent through violence. For instance, you commit a sin because you are being threatened. An example is being forced at gunpoint to perform sexual acts. It’s still considered consent because you could resist, but without the threat, you wouldn’t have done it.

Then there is involuntary reaction.You don’t actively give consent or participate, but you don’t resist either. An example is throwing a punch without contemplation. The fist flies before you can even think to stop. Or when you injure yourself and you shout Jesus’s name.

Lastly, there is perfect resistance, where you don’t give into the sin.

A lot of people, especially traditionalists, forget that the condition of mortal sin is FULL consent. Now, these people have good intentions. They understand the serious potential for people to rationalize their mortal sin into a venial sin. For instance, someone could take their temptation and say “I didn’t give full consent because I was tempted” which is absolutely false. Thus, you have people who don’t even repent of their sins or even try to fight sins. To them, full consent is if they do something completely devoid of inclination. The other fear of traditionalists is that the person with an addiction will figure that since they aren’t committing a mortal sin, they won’t have to change. The fact is that not even trying is a different sin. The sin of being lukewarm. Sin is damaging and every time a sin is committed, regardless of consent, you are damaged, and so is your relationship with God. And those sins will cause you to commit other sins that you aren’t addicted to, thus enabling you to give full consent to a different sin. If you don’t fight an addiction, you will fall away from God. The last traditionalist fear is that someone will claim an addiction when they really don’t have one. Thus, they excuse themselves from the confessional. “I don’t need to go since I’m addicted and therefore not in mortal sin.” That distinction isn’t made by an individual. Either a healthcare practitioner or a priest will tell you of your addiction.

The traditionalists have good intentions here, but the issue that occurs is that the addicted person will despair and give up. The same occurs with people with scrupulosity. Saying that someone who is addicted isn’t in mortal sin is not a free pass for them to continue their sin. And it only applies to someone who genuinely repents and wants to change.

The thing about actions, whether good or bad, is that we don’t own them. They don’t originate from us. We are incapable of owning our own actions since due to our corrupted fall, all the good we do came from God, and all that is bad is because of the fall. Yes, we cannot even pride ourselves in having ownership over our sins. We perform deeds. We commit sins. We do not own them. The only thing we do is consent to them and participate in them. Thus, the only action we really own is whether we consent to or reject God’s mercy.

Why Don’t We Pray for Satan (or other Demons)

Someone asked me this question a long time ago. After all, Jesus says to pray for our enemies. The issue with praying for Satan, however, is that it will have absolutely no effect. Why? Because unlike us humans, his sin originated from within. Angels are pure spirits. Spirits differ from corporeal forms, such as ourselves, in that they don’t have a body. Our capacity for understanding is limited by our brain. (we have a spiritual capacity too as far as intellect goes, but we don’t get to use it unless we’ve become spiritual masters, for example, devout monks who achieve sainthood, or until we are dead.) Angels, on the other hand, had infinite theoretical knowledge of everything. They knew the law and the truth, and they knew exactly what would happen to them should they reject God. They were not tempted in any way shape or form. The concept of not being tempted into sin seems absolutely foreign to us. After all, there are probably none of us who knows what it feels like to not be at least tempted slightly by something. In fact, when I say I am not tempted, I really mean “the temptation is small enough to where I can unconsciously manage it.”

Before the fall, we could only be tempted externally, but after the fall we became able to be tempted from within, due to the fall corrupting our nature. When we fell, Satan tempted us externally. That means our flesh didn’t crave the sin like ours do. Yet, because of our minds, we saw the benefits of the sin and did not fully grasp the severity of the consequences. We knew we’d be punished, but we figured that the knowledge of good and evil was worth it. However, the understanding is that without the external temptation, we wouldn’t have even considered eating the fruit.

The demons, on the other hand, had no such external temptation. Nothing disordered came along to corrupt them. They became disordered on their own accord. The fact is, the demons, on their own accord, said that they would rather be banished into a lake of fire for all eternity than to willingly serve God. They knew exactly what they were doing and their actions would be irrevocable. Furthermore, they do not have a capacity for remorse. To this day, they are happy with their decision.

Lastly, God has already judged them and sentenced them to eternity in hell. We, however, have not been judged. We can still repent, no matter how evil we have been. We are incapable of committing an evil as pure as the demons. The worst we can do is reject God’s mercy at the end of our lives. Even if one of us was to sit here and wish God dead, that act would have originated from a sinful corruption. The very fact of the matter is that there is nothing that we can do, good or evil, that originates from ourselves. We cannot pride ourselves in any good we have done. Only through God do we perform good acts. But even then, we cannot even pride ourselves in our sins. For there is nothing that we can commit that would truly be original. It is all prompted through demonic influence, whether it be the concupiscence from the fall or from an external temptation. The extent of our action is to give consent. But even with that, it is still us doing it. We participate. We aren’t just robots who hand over the keys to God or Satan.

Who is Satan?

The most common images of the devil are either that of a red guy with horns and a pitchfork or a ridiculously attractive and seductive woman/man. The former points to the ugliness of his sin. The latter points to how enticing his sin is to us. In my opinion, I think Satan is not so blatantly obvious. Sometimes there are events that occur in history when we see complete evil out in plain sight, whether it be a shooting in Nevada or mass genocide in Germany. Yet, Satan works in subtle ways. If you ask me, I would say that Satan brings a false sense of comfort and peace. He’s a friendly person to you. And the most confusing aspect is that he will feed you some truth, and pepper in some subtle lies. Sometimes he encourages strict adherence to religious doctrines. How on earth could that be wrong? Isn’t following the law to the letter a good thing? Jesus didn’t think so. Not in the case of the Pharisees who considered anything that required any effort to be “working on the Sabbath.” Jesus essentially told them that they need to understand the “spirit of the law.” In other words, “use common sense when applying the law.”

Did you know that there are Jews out there who refuse to push buttons on an elevator on Saturdays because it’s technically “work?”  There have also been heretical sects of Christianity which promoted strict fasting guidelines, such as the Montanists, which started off as a strict observance and eventually grew into a full-fledged group of schismatic heretics. This was the group that the great theologian Tertullian succumbed to.

Then you have the opposite end of the spectrum: the liberal interpretation of the moral law. Essentially, this view discourages even following the law in certain areas. This Satanic influence is more apparent and does not need much explanation. But the two ends of the spectrum have one thing in common: both detract a person from having a genuine relationship with God. That’s really what Satan’s aim is. He becomes your friend who slowly directs you off the path of righteousness. There is certainly a balance to genuine worship of God. Certainly in this day and age, in comparison to society, the true church is conservative. However, it was not too long ago in the past when the church was considered liberal in comparison to the societal norms. The command to be fruitful and multiply was liberal in a society that considered licit marital sex to still be inherently sinful. After all, some theologians theorized that it was in the act of sex that original sin was transmitted and some monastics considered all marital acts to be a byproduct of the sin of lust. In fact, some even suggested that there would have been a different reproductive process if it hadn’t been for the fall.

The takeaway here is that Satan is able and willing to be anything and everything to subvert us. Sometimes he uses obvious enticements that we know are wrong but can’t resist. Other times, he disguises himself as an angel of light, using elements of truth to weave heresies to lead us astray. There are 4 cardinal virtues: Prudence, Courage, Justice, and Temperance. Prudence is your compass, temperance is your map. Courage your sword, justice your shield. Employ these tools that God gives you to know and follow the right path. And know that Satan will not stop short of using tremendous good to achieve tremendous evil.

Venial Sins aren’t Good

This is a common sense statement. However, there is a need to say it. A lot of people believe for whatever reason that it is ok to commit venial sins since they don’t require the confessional before communion. It almost seems that people are more concerned about being able to receive communion than they are about developing a relationship with God. People tend to imagine the difference between a mortal and venial sin as being as wide as the Grand Canyon. Venial sins are seen as insignificant, and mortal sins are seen as either the worst thing imaginable (they are) or as being something that you just confess to make go away. The difference they see between the two is that one requires sacramental confession and the other does not. They forget that both require genuine repentance for forgiveness. The fact is, the difference between the two is that one completely kills your relationship with God and the church (and thus you need to be restored to communion. You are quite literally excommunicated. Not in the canonical sense but in a literal sense. You are outside of communion. (There are mortal sins that are automatic excommunications in the canonical sense but that is not what I am referring to). Venial sins damage your relationship with God. To put this in perspective, let’s imagine that a person’s body is the relationship. People see a venial sin the same as being a papercut. No. A venial sin is like having a cannonball blow your arm off. Yes, you will live, but it’s not something you just brush off.

A mortal sin is like being shot in the head. There are different and worse ways to die as well. Likewise, a mortal sin can be anything from sexual immorality to murder. Murder seems like the worst thing a person could commit, but masturbation can also be a mortal sin. These two sins are very far apart in their degree of gravity. But that isn’t what mortal sin means. It means your relationship with God and the Church is severed. The ironic part is that all sins are infinitely evil. All sins are worthy of death, and we do receive that punishment. Everyone WILL die. Mortal sin doesn’t mean sin worthy of death. All sins are worthy of death. An example would be someone who is diseased. A person with the flu would stay in bed, drink water and take medicine. In a few days, they would be healthy again, provided they followed the treatment plan. They wouldn’t need to present themselves to a priest. However, a leper would be cast out of the community and before being able to gain admission, would have to present himself to a priest to be declared clean. Only then could he be readmitted to the community.

Venial sins are something you want to avoid if you are seeking a godly life. They aren’t a free pass at a sin with the assumption that it is automatically forgiven.

Follow Your Heart: An Orthodox Journey to God

That’s right folks, I said the “O” word. A lot of Catholics freak out when they see the word “orthodox.” They immediately think of the Eastern Orthodox church, which, as we know is not in communion with Rome. And worse, when Eastern Catholics refer to themselves as Orthodox in Communion with Rome, the immediate image that comes to many peoples mind is that these folks are nominally catholic but adhere to all the teachings of the Orthodox Church and thus deny things such as Papal Supremacy and Papal Infallibility. While there are certainly factions within the Eastern Catholic Churches that do ascribe to such things, the very fact of the matter is that Orthodox simply means “of true belief” or better yet “true-believing.” So, we are in fact Orthodox Christians. We are Orthodox Catholics in communion with the Pope of Rome. But when I said “Orthodox” in the title, I am more referring to Eastern Orthodox spirituality.

Why are we so afraid to embrace anything that has to do with Eastern Orthodoxy, save the liturgy and some devotions, such as the Chotki? The Eastern Orthodox Church does not have a monopoly on Eastern spirituality, and furthermore, Eastern Spirituality is by no means heretical. The Eastern Spirituality is the other lung which Pope St. John Paul II spoke of. If we are to be that Eastern Lung, we must bring all we can to the table. We shouldn’t imitate the Western Lung, otherwise we are compromising our own functionality, and thus the functionality of the entire Church! The fate of the Church truly depends on us being as fully Eastern as we can be, and by doing such, will support our Western brothers by supplying to the Church the grace of our prayers. We MUST pray the traditions that were handed down to us. We cannot try to hybridize the East and the West into some universal individual lung. The Roman Church tried that after the Second Vatican Council. That attempt is known as the Novus Ordo, or among some Neo Conservative circles as the “Ordinary Form of the Mass.” And we know what effect that is having on the Church. We cannot turn our own traditions into an Eastern Novus Ordo. We must preserve our traditions. If both feet curved to the same direction, we would stumble. If both hemispheres of our brains were the same, we’d only have half the functionality of a full brain. We are the mirror to the West, just as the West is a mirror to us! So, with that being said, without further ado, let us proceed to the matter at hand.


In Eastern Orthodox spirituality, there are two main centers in our body. That is our heart and our mind. With our mind, we produce rational thought, we contemplate things, we form opinions, and we learn. In fact, we spend most of our time using our minds, and furthermore, it is with our minds that Satan convinces us to fall into sin, time and time again. Our heart is different. Our heart is where the law of God is written upon. It is written on everyone’s heart, and this is in a multitude of scriptures. While our mind has to learn the law, our hearts already know it. It is almost as if our heart has a homing beacon set on God. It is for this reason that Christ teaches “Blessed are the Pure of Heart.” No where in the beatitudes does Christ say “Blessed are the Brainiacs” or “Blessed are the Scholars.” Yet, he mentions the heart. In fact, some people believe that we don’t need to read a lick of theology, listen to any sermons, or even know a single verse of scripture since the law is written on our hearts. If we listen to our hearts, we will know all that we need to know. In fact, there is a line in the Imitation of Christ, a Western work, which states “It is better to feel contrition than to know how to define it.” This feeling stems from the heart.

It is further believed that the heart is the one place in the body that is free from carnal desires. In the mind is pride, jealousy,  envy. In the gut is gluttony, lust, and sloth. Between the both is wrath shared,  but in the heart, since it is where the Holy Spirit dwells within us, is the one place free from these vices. That is why we are told to not harden our hearts, since from our hearts flows any hope we have for holiness. We fast from food to weaken our gut. Our lengthy prayers strain our minds. But in both, our hearts grow stronger. This is one aspect of the theology behind the Chotki.


The Chotki is a prayer used by Eastern monks. The prayer recited is “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.” It is this basic prayer which sums up what it means to be a Christian. We acknowledge Jesus as the Lord, the Christ, and the Son of God, thus making him God the Son. Through this we acknowledge the Trinity. We beseech mercy, and in doing so, thus repent of our sins and ask Him to pour out His grace upon us so that we may be healed from our sins. The last part is the acknowledgement of our sinfulness. That is our confession. We sinners acknowledge that the Lord is God and has revealed himself to us, and that through Him our sins will be forgiven, and we will be healed. There have been entire books written on that one small prayer.

However, the Chotki is more than a mindless repetition of those words. The first step of the Chotki is to control your breathing. The goal is to have your body pray along with your mind. With praying these words as every breath enters in and out, we fulfill the commandment to pray without ceasing. But it goes even deeper than this. The next step is to have the prayer start matching the rhythm of your heartbeat. It is advised not to attempt this until you have been praying the chotki for many years. I do not know the exact reason behind this, but I can speculate that it is more of a physical concern as opposed to a spiritual concern. The greatest concern monks have for new people praying this prayer is that they will damage their lungs and  for no avail, since they are praying it wrong.

The last step is to move your consciousness to your heart. This is by far the most difficult step. The idea behind this is that you will be able to follow your heart closer to God and that by doing this you will slowly but surely turn away from all sins. The danger here is indeed spiritual. The monks caution people to not try this without being under the direction of someone who is  experienced. The danger is that one could bring their prayer down to their gut, which is the seat of carnal desires and thus become enticed into sin. I am certain that these monks speak by experience and not by conjecture.

So, how ought we pray it? Unless you have a good spiritual father guiding you in this, I strongly recommend you heed the monk’s warning. The Jesus Prayer is indeed a powerful prayer and if you do not pray it properly, you can easily be deceived by Satan. As crazy as that sounds, we know that Satan prowls about like a lion to devour his prey, and that he comes disguised as an angel of light. We are the most vulnerable in prayer since that is when we least expect the onslaught of the enemy. Thus, an experienced Father can guide us and help us to know if it’s God we are experiencing or something more sinister.

For those of us who do not have an experienced Spiritual Father or are just starting out, you begin with focusing on your breathing pattern. There is a wealth of information about this online. You focus on the words and try to clear your mind. The Jesus prayer isn’t meditation like the Rosary is. We aren’t contemplating events or feelings or anything. This is in sharp departure from most Western Catholic perspective. Western Catholics think it is dangerous to try to pray without utilizing the full faculties of your mind. They are correct. However, Western Catholics, especially those who follow the method Ignatius, follow spiritual exercises which  are completed totally within the imagination of the mind. Eastern Catholics also say this form of rationalization is dangerous. The overall point here is that something being dangerous doesn’t mean it is wrong or bad. It means that you should not pass without a guide. The path to heaven is full of dangers and perils. A wrong step can misdirect you onto the path of hell. Follow your guide . It is their job to lead you to heaven.